常年三十主日:以主為基,以人為本 2020年10月25日


常年期第三十主日

愛主愛人的統一

讀經一:(出22:20-26):天主厭惡不義
讀經二:(得前1:5-10):得撒洛尼信友的信德傳遍各地
福 音:(瑪22:34-40):最大的誡命
中國文化: 慎終追遠,民德歸厚。 以孝治天下。
生事之以禮,死葬之以禮。 事死如事生,事亡如事存。


有一個法學士問耶穌,哪一條是最大的誡命,耶穌對他說:「你應全心、全靈、全意愛上主你的天主。這是最大的,也是第一條誡命。第二條和它相似:你應當愛人如己。全部法律和先知,都繫於這兩條誡命。」(參考瑪22:34-40)

愛主、愛人本來是兩條誡命,但在耶穌的心目中,卻只是「一條」誡命。

所有宗教的重點一定是愛神,但聖經卻十分注重愛人。

出谷紀第22章認為恭敬天主的人,一定要愛人,理由是因為我們亦需要別人的愛。出谷紀這樣說:「對於外籍人士,不可苛待壓迫,因為你們也曾僑居埃及。對孤兒寡婦,不可傷害;如果傷害了任何一個,他向我呼求,我必聽允,必要發怒,用刀殺你們:這樣,你們的妻子也要成為寡婦,你們的兒子也要成為孤兒。如果你借錢給我子民中一個與你同住的窮人,不可像債主一樣,向他索取利息,若是你拿了別人的外衣作抵押,日落以前,應該還給他,因為這是他唯一能蓋身的外衣;沒有外衣,他怎能睡覺呢?他若向我呼號,我必聽允,因為我是仁慈的。」(出22:20-26)這是出谷紀的「推己及人」精神。

其實,在孔子的思想中,生活和信仰也是要結合起來的。我們都知道孔子說過「慎終追遠」這句話,但我們多數會忘記這句話的後面,還有「民德歸厚」四個字。孔子的意思是,當一個民族能「慎終追遠」時,他們的社會風氣也一定會變得更好、更敦厚,這就是「民德歸厚」。

孔子也認為,我們對父母要能「生事之以禮,死葬之以禮」,並要做到「事死如事生,事亡如事存」的境界,換句話說,我們要對生者和死者都盡孝。孔子更相信,若我們連對死者都能盡顯孝心,對生者又怎會不克盡孝道呢!

所以「慎終追遠」的目的,就是為了「民德歸厚」。這是中國人的信仰與生活的統一與結合。

我們的信仰也強烈要求我們,生活與信仰必須統一。聖經有時講來世的生命,但目的是為幫助我們度現世的生命。我們信天主,是為了使我們能信人、信自己、信生命。我們愛天主,亦是為了幫助我們對自己、對別人都充滿愛心和充滿希望。

信、望、愛是立體的,一方面是天主,另一方面是自己,第三方面是各種人和事。我們對自己、別人和天主,都應該同時充滿信、望、愛。更好說,對天主充滿信、望、愛,可以擴展而使我們對人、對自己和對萬物都充滿信、望、愛。

宗教信仰時常叫我們光榮天主,我認為我們只能用我們的生命去光榮天主。一個更準確的比喻是,子女的成材是父母的光榮,學生的成材是老師的光榮。天主既是生命的主宰,如果我們能活出更豐盛的生命,能管理好這個地球,這便是天主的光榮了。

這就是拉丁文所說的Gloria Dei, homo vivens.(活生生的人,就是天主的光榮)。所以我們要在天主內愛人,在愛人的時候愛天主。

關於這點,我們耳熟能詳的聖經章節有:「你對我最小的兄弟姊妹做的,就是對我做的。」(瑪25:40)「純潔無瑕的虔誠,就是照顧在患難中的孤兒和寡婦。」(雅1:27)「你若不能愛看得見的兄弟,又怎能愛看不見的天主呢!」(若一4:20)

我們必須在天主裡學習去愛人,亦在天主裡,愛人愛得更純潔、更全面、更徹底。而在愛人的時候,我們便是落實了對天主的愛。

讓我們一生時常實踐耶穌的話:全心、全靈、全意、全力的去愛,盡心、盡性、盡情的去愛;愛天主在萬有之上,並且愛人如己。

常年期第三十主日

爱主爱人的统一

读经一:(出22:20-26):天主厌恶不义
读经二:(得前1:5-10):得撒洛尼信友的信德传遍各地
福 音:(玛22:34-40):最大的诫命
中国文化: 慎终追遠,民德归厚。以孝治天下。
生事之以礼,死葬之以礼。事死如事生,事亡如事存。


有一個法学士問耶稣,哪一条是最大的诫命,耶稣对他说:「你应全心、全灵、全意爱上主你的天主。这是最大的,也是第一条诫命。第二条和它相似:你应当爱人如己。全部法律和先知,都系於这两条诫命。」(参考玛22:34-40)

爱主、爱人本来是两条诫命,但在耶稣的心目中,却只是「一条」诫命。

所有宗教的重点一定是爱神,但圣经却十分注重爱人。

出谷纪第22章认为恭敬天主的人,一定要爱人,理由是因为我们亦需要别人的爱。出谷纪这样说:「对於外籍人士,不可苛待压迫,因为你们也曾侨居埃及。对孤儿寡妇,不可伤害;如果伤害了任何一個,他向我呼求,我必听允,必要发怒,用刀杀你们:这样,你们的妻子也要成为寡妇,你们的儿子也要成为孤儿。如果你借钱给我子民中一個与你同住的穷人,不可像债主一样,向他索取利息,若是你拿了别人的外衣作抵押,日落以前,应該还给他,因为这是他唯一能盖身的外衣;没有外衣,他怎能睡觉呢?他若向我呼号,我必听允,因为我是仁慈的。」(出22:20-26)这是出谷纪的「推己及人」精神。

其实,在孔子的思想中,生活和信仰也是要结合起来的。我们都知道孔子说過「慎终追遠」这句话,但我们多数会忘记这句话的后面,还有「民德归厚」四個字。孔子的意思是,当一個民族能「慎终追遠」時,他们的社会风气也一定会变得更好、更敦厚,这就是「民德归厚」。

孔子也认为,我们对父母要能「生事之以礼,死葬之以礼」,并要做到「事死如事生,事亡如事存」的境界,换句话说,我们要对生者和死者都尽孝。孔子更相信,若我们连对死者都能尽显孝心,对生者又怎会不克尽孝道呢!

所以「慎终追遠」的目的,就是为了「民德归厚」。这是中国人的信仰与生活的统一与结合。

我们的信仰也强烈要求我们,生活与信仰必须统一。圣经有時讲来世的生命,但目的是为帮助我们度现世的生命。我们信天主,是为了使我们能信人、信自己、信生命。我们爱天主,亦是为了帮助我们对自己、对别人都充满爱心和充满希望。

信、望、爱是立体的,一方面是天主,另一方面是自己,第三方面是各种人和事。我们对自己、别人和天主,都应該同時充满信、望、爱。更好说,对天主充满信、望、爱,可以扩展而使我们对人、对自己和对万物都充满信、望、爱。

宗教信仰時常叫我们光荣天主,我认为我们只能用我们的生命去光荣天主。一個更准确的比喻是,子女的成材是父母的光荣,学生的成材是老师的光荣。天主既是生命的主宰,如果我们能活出更丰盛的生命,能管理好这個地球,这便是天主的光荣了。

这就是拉丁文所说的Gloria Dei, homo vivens.(活生生的人,就是天主的光荣)。所以我们要在天主内爱人,在爱人的時候爱天主。

关於这点,我们耳熟能详的圣经章节有:「你对我最小的兄弟姊妹做的,就是对我做的。」(玛25:40)「纯洁无瑕的虔诚,就是照顾在患难中的孤儿和寡妇。」(雅1:27)「你若不能爱看得见的兄弟,又怎能爱看不见的天主呢!」(若一4:20)

我们必须在天主里学习去爱人,亦在天主里,爱人爱得更纯洁、更全面、更彻底。而在爱人的時候,我们便是落实了对天主的爱。

让我们一生時常实踐耶稣的话:全心、全灵、全意、全力的去爱,尽心、尽性、尽情的去爱;爱天主在万有之上,并且爱人如己。

THIRTIETH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME

Uniting Love of God and Love of Neighbor

First Reading (Ex 22:20-26) : God is unhappy with injustice
Second Reading (1 Thess 1:5-10): The faith of the Thessalonians spread all over
Gospel (Mt 22:34-40): The greatest commandment.
Chinese Classics:
-“If we can care for the final hours of our parents and honor them with the ceremonies of sacrifice long after their death, then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence.” (1)
-“Rule the world with filial piety.” (2)
-“That parents, when alive, should be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety.” (3)
-“They served the dead as they would have served them alive; they served the departed as they would have served them had they continued among them.” (4)


One of the Pharisees asked Jesus which was the greatest commandment Jesus answered him, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the greatest and first commandment. And a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets." (Ref Mt 22:34-40)

To love God and love one's neighbor are really two commandments, but in Jesus' mind there is only 'one' commandment.

The main focus of all religions surely is love of One Spirit, but Scripture is very insistent on love of neighbor. In Chapter twenty-two of the Book of Exodus the author says that those who worship God must love their neighbor because we need the love of others. This is what is written,“You shall not wrong or oppress a resident alien, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt. You shall not abuse any widow or orphan. If you do abuse them, when they cry out to me, I will surely heed their cry; my wrath will burn, and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives shall become widows and your children orphans. If you lend money to my people, to the poor among you, you shall not deal with them as a creditor; you shall not exact interest from them. If you take your neighbor's cloak in pawn, you shall restore it before the sun goes down; for it may be your neighbor's only clothing to use as cover; in what else shall that person sleep? And if your neighbor cries out to me, I will listen, for I am compassionate.” (Ex 22:20-26) That is the spirit of 'promoting self and others' in the Book of Exodus.

In fact, uniting belief and a way of life is an element of Confucius' philosophy. We know that Confucius said, “If we can care for the final hours of our parents and honor them with the ceremonies of sacrifice long after their death”. However, we usually forget what comes after this saying, “Then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."(1) What Confucius meant was that if the people of a nation would pay attention to funeral rites of their parents and continue with the ceremonies of sacrifice afterwards, their society would be more sincere, friendly and honest. Thus, “the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."

Confucius taught that we should treat our parents like this: “That parents, when alive, should be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety.”(3) Besides, “They (The children) served the dead as they would have served them alive; they served the departed as they would have served them had they been continued among them.” (4) In other words, we should treat the living and the dead with filial love. Confucius also believed that if we could treat the dead with filial love, how could we not treat the living with filial love!

Therefore, the objective of “If we can care for the final hours of our parents and honor them with the ceremonies of sacrifice long after their death” is to ensure that “the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence." This is how the Chinese unite their beliefs with the way they live.

Our faith demands of us that faith and life must be united. The Bible sometimes talks about the afterlife but the purpose is to help us live well in this world. We believe in God so that we can believe in people, ourselves and in life. We love God also so that we can be full of love and hope for ourselves and for others.

Faith, hope and love are virtues directed first towards God, then towards ourselves, and thirdly towards all kinds of people and events. At the same time we should be full of faith, hope and love for God, our neighbor and ourselves. Or expressed even more correctly, faith, hope and love of God expand our faith, hope and love for people, ourselves and all of creation.

Religious faith always calls us to glorify God and I think we can only glorify God with life itself. A perfect example is how children's accomplishments glorify their parents, or students' accomplishments give glory to their teachers. Since God is the Lord of life, if we can live life to the full and manage this earth carefully, this too glorifies God.

This is what is meant by the Latin phrase “Gloria Dei, Homo vivens” (‘The glory of God is man fully alive’). So in God we should love others, and when we love others we are loving God.

Regarding this we no doubt are very familiar with some of the Biblical phrases. “Just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me. (Mt 25:40). “Religion that is pure and undefiled before God is to care for orphans and widows in their distress” (Jas 1:27). “Those who do not love a brother or sister whom they have seen, cannot love God whom they have not seen.” (1 Jn 4:20).

We must learn to love others in God so that our love can be more pure, complete and extensive. And when we love others we love God in a very practical manner.

Let us during our entire lives always carry out Jesus' words: love with all our hearts, souls, minds and strength, and make every effort to continue to love fully in heart, spirit and affection: loving God above all else and loving our neighbors as ourselves.

(1)慎終追遠,民德歸厚。 以孝治天下。
(2)生事之以禮,死葬之以禮。 事死如事生,事亡如事存。

現場講道(粵語)

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現場講道文稿

主日八分半(彌撒講道)

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徐錦堯@fr.luketsui.idv.hk 2020