常年廿四主日:愛和寬恕是有條件或無條件? 2020年09月13日


常年期第廿四主日

無限量的寬恕

讀經一:(德27:33-28:9):不要懷恨,但要悲天憫人
讀經二:(羅14:7-9):為主而生,為主而死
福 音:(瑪18:21-35):寬恕之道
中國文化: 大腹能容,容天下難容之事;慈顏常笑,笑世間可笑之人。


今次的聖經告訴我們一個天主教十分重要的道理,就是寬恕。寬恕是很困難的事,在聖經裡,寬恕的道理是逐漸啟示出來的。

古經記載,最先人類的復仇是無限制的(創4:24)。在無限復仇的背景下,上主對人說:你的復仇最多只可以到七次或七倍,不可以超過。然後慢慢進展,在七倍復仇的背景中,聖經說:你應該以牙還牙,以眼還眼。亦是在這個背景之下,伯多祿來問耶穌說:「主呀!如果我的弟兄得罪了我,我應該寬恕他多少次呢?七次夠不夠?

在以牙還牙的背景中願意寬恕七次,實在是十分慷慨。但耶穌要告訴我們的是:「我不是說,你要寬恕七次,而是七十個七次。

「七十個七次」是代表無數次、無限次。「七」這個數目字,在聖經中代表圓滿、極多;七十個七次更是代表一個最圓滿的數目、一個無窮無盡的數目。即是說,我們要無限地寬恕。對任何人、在任何時候,我們都要寬恕。

耶穌講寬恕時,同時講了一個令我們很震撼的比喻。有一個人欠人許多錢,聖經說是一萬金幣,是任何一個普通的人無可能償還的一筆鉅大的數目。所以聖經說他沒有錢可以償還。主人就下令將他和他的妻子、兒女、以及他所有的一切,都拿出來變賣去還債。但即使賣掉一切,他都不可能還清債務。這僕人就俯伏在地,叩拜主人說:「主啊!寬容我吧!我一定會清還給你的。」主人就動了憐憫之心,將他釋放了,且豁免了他的債務。

怎知這僕人一出門,便遇到一個欠他少少的一百銀幣的同事,他就扼住他的喉嚨說:「還清你欠我的債!」這個欠他一百銀幣的同事,也好像他一樣,跪在地上哀求說:「你寬容我吧!我一定會清還給你的!」但這個人不肯,反而將他關在監獄裡面,直至他還清了所欠的債。

其他的同事看見這一幕醜事,非常悲憤,就將這事告訴主人,於是主人就叫了這僕人來對他說:「可惡的僕人,你哀求我,我就全部免了你所欠的債;難道你不應該憐憫你的同事,好似我憐憫了你一樣嗎?」主人十分憤怒,於是將他交給獄吏,直到他還清全部的欠債為止。

耶穌的結論是:「如果你們不從心裡寬恕你們的弟兄,我的天父也要這樣對待你們。」(參考瑪18:21-35)

在德訓篇中,天主也曾這樣說:「你要寬恕你近人的過錯;這樣,你在祈禱時,你的罪也會得到赦免。如果你對他人懷恨在心,怎能求上主治療呢?如果你對自己的同胞毫無憐憫,怎能為自己的罪過求寬恕呢?」(德28:2-4)

德訓篇繼續提醒我們,如果要寬恕,就要記著幾件事。第一、要記著最後的結局,而停止仇恨。第二、要記著人必會死亡和腐朽,並遵照誡命去生活。第三、要記著天主的誡命,不可向人發怒。第四、要記著至高者的盟約,寬恕別人的過失。(參考德28:5-9)

聖經提醒我們,我們要記著人生總有一死,合了雙眼,伸直雙腳,便一切都完結了,所有的恩恩怨怨還有甚麼意義呢?你將你所恨的人由墳墓裡拿出來鞭屍,難道他會痛嗎?即使他痛了,對你又有甚麼好處呢?

有些人記仇,會一直延伸到他進入墳墓裡;甚至還要子孫們世世代代去復仇。這是真真正正的冤冤相報何時了。

我們要記著天主的誡命,天主叫我們寬恕,不可向人發怒。如果天主寬恕我們,如果他無條件地寬恕我們,我們又有甚麼理由懷恨在心呢?所以要寬恕,要無限量地寬恕。

耶穌不單講寬恕之道,他自己也實踐寬恕之道。當他懸在十字架上時,他戴著茨冠,不能抬頭向天仰望,他只能望著在十字架下,咒罵他、譏笑他的人。但他一點也不懷恨在心,他只是溫和的說:「父!寬恕他們,因為他們不知道自己在作甚麼。」

耶穌也叫我們效法他慈悲的天父,一個無限包容的天主,他好像太陽和雨露,不分彼此地,光照和潤澤所有人。

中國人很少講寬恕,但卻講包容,例如這副對聯:「大腹能容,容天下難容之事;慈顏常笑,笑世間可笑之人。」能包容的人,便可以較易去寬恕了。

耶穌還有一些話值得我們警惕:如果我們不能從心裡寬恕我們的兄弟,天父也要這樣對待我們。天主經也提醒我們:「求你寬恕我們的罪過,如同我們寬恕別人一樣。

我們每個人不免都會得罪別人,我們必須培養一種文化,一種信仰的氛圍,就是我們可以彼此寬恕、願意彼此寬恕,使一切都有重新開始的可能。

常年期第廿四主日

无限量的宽恕

读经一:(德27:33-28:9):不要怀恨,但要悲天悯人
读经二:(罗14:7-9):为主而生,为主而死
福 音:(玛18:21-35):宽恕之道
中国文化: 大腹能容,容天下难容之事;慈颜常笑,笑世间可笑之人。


今次的圣经告诉我们一個天主教十分重要的道理,就是宽恕。宽恕是很困难的事,在圣经里,宽恕的道理是逐渐启示出来的。

古经记载,最先人类的复仇是无限制的(创4:24)。在无限复仇的背景下,上主对人说:你的复仇最多只可以到七次或七倍,不可以超過。然后慢慢进展,在七倍复仇的背景中,圣经说:你应該以牙还牙,以眼还眼。亦是在这個背景之下,伯多禄来問耶稣说:「主呀!如果我的弟兄得罪了我,我应該宽恕他多少次呢?七次够不够?

在以牙还牙的背景中願意宽恕七次,实在是十分慷慨。但耶稣要告诉我们的是:「我不是说,你要宽恕七次,而是七十個七次。

「七十個七次」是代表无数次、无限次。「七」这個数目字,在圣经中代表圆满、极多;七十個七次更是代表一個最圆满的数目、一個无穷无尽的数目。即是说,我们要无限地宽恕。对任何人、在任何時候,我们都要宽恕。

耶稣讲宽恕時,同時讲了一個令我们很震撼的比喻。有一個人欠人许多钱,圣经说是一万金币,是任何一個普通的人无可能偿还的一笔巨大的数目。所以圣经说他没有钱可以偿还。主人就下令将他和他的妻子、儿女、以及他所有的一切,都拿出来变卖去还债。但即使卖掉一切,他都不可能还清债务。这仆人就俯伏在地,叩拜主人说:「主啊!宽容我吧!我一定会清还给你的。」主人就动了怜悯之心,将他释放了,且豁免了他的债务。

怎知这仆人一出门,便遇到一個欠他少少的一百银币的同事,他就扼住他的喉咙说:「还清你欠我的债!」这個欠他一百银币的同事,也好像他一样,跪在地上哀求说:「你宽容我吧!我一定会清还给你的!」但这個人不肯,反而将他关在监狱里面,直至他还清了所欠的债。

其他的同事看见这一幕丑事,非常悲愤,就将这事告诉主人,於是主人就叫了这仆人来对他说:「可恶的仆人,你哀求我,我就全部免了你所欠的债;难道你不应該怜悯你的同事,好似我怜悯了你一样吗?」主人十分愤怒,於是将他交给狱吏,直到他还清全部的欠债为止。

耶稣的结论是:「如果你们不从心里宽恕你们的弟兄,我的天父也要这样对待你们。」(参考玛18:21-35)

在德训篇中,天主也曾这样说:「你要宽恕你近人的過错;这样,你在祈祷時,你的罪也会得到赦免。如果你对他人怀恨在心,怎能求上主治疗呢?如果你对自己的同胞毫无怜悯,怎能为自己的罪過求宽恕呢?」(德28:2-4)

德训篇继续提醒我们,如果要宽恕,就要记著幾件事。第一、要记著最后的结局,而停止仇恨。第二、要记著人必会死亡和腐朽,并遵照诫命去生活。第三、要记著天主的诫命,不可向人发怒。第四、要记著至高者的盟约,宽恕别人的過失。(参考德28:5-9)

圣经提醒我们,我们要记著人生总有一死,合了双眼,伸直双脚,便一切都完结了,所有的恩恩怨怨还有甚么意义呢?你将你所恨的人由坟墓里拿出来鞭尸,难道他会痛吗?即使他痛了,对你又有甚么好处呢?

有些人记仇,会一直延伸到他进入坟墓里;甚至还要子孫们世世代代去复仇。这是真真正正的冤冤相报何時了。

我们要记著天主的诫命,天主叫我们宽恕,不可向人发怒。如果天主宽恕我们,如果他无条件地宽恕我们,我们又有甚么理由怀恨在心呢?所以要宽恕,要无限量地宽恕。

耶稣不单讲宽恕之道,他自己也实踐宽恕之道。当他悬在十字架上時,他戴著茨冠,不能抬头向天仰望,他只能望著在十字架下,咒骂他、讥笑他的人。但他一点也不怀恨在心,他只是温和的说:「父!宽恕他们,因为他们不知道自己在作甚么。」

耶稣也叫我们效法他慈悲的天父,一個无限包容的天主,他好像太阳和雨露,不分彼此地,光照和润泽所有人。

中国人很少讲宽恕,但却讲包容,例如这副对联:「大腹能容,容天下难容之事;慈颜常笑,笑世间可笑之人。」能包容的人,便可以较易去宽恕了。

耶稣还有一些话值得我们警惕:如果我们不能从心里宽恕我们的兄弟,天父也要这样对待我们。天主经也提醒我们:「求你宽恕我们的罪過,如同我们宽恕别人一样。

我们每個人不免都会得罪别人,我们必须培养一种文化,一种信仰的氛围,就是我们可以彼此宽恕、願意彼此宽恕,使一切都有重新開始的可能。

TWENTY-FOURTH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME

Forgiveness without Limit

First Reading: Sir 27: 33-28:9):Do not harbor anger but like God be merciful toward others
Second Reading (Rom 14: 7-9): Live and die for the Lord
Gospel: (Mt 18: 21-35): The way of forgiveness
Chinese classics:
-“A big belly has a great capacity, Holding the most difficult things in this world; The kind faces always smile, Smiling at the laughable people on earth. “(1)

Today's Scripture reading elaborates on a crucial aspect of our Catholic faith: forgiveness. To pardon is by no means easy. In the Bible the notion of forgiveness is revealed gradually.

The Old Testament records that in early times people could retaliate as often as they were offended, almost without limit (Gen 4:24). In such circumstances God said that human beings could take revenge no more than seven times or seven-fold. As one was allowed to seek vengeance seven-fold, as time went on it was stated in the Bible that there should be an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. In such a milieu Peter came and said to Jesus,” Lord, if another member of the church sins against me, how often should I forgive? As many as seven times?” In a time when the common understanding was an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, to forgive seven times was already very tolerant and generous. However, what Jesus said to him was, “Not seven times but I tell you, seventy –seven times.

‘Seventy times seven’ means countless times. In Scripture, the number ‘seven’ indicates completeness, a multitude, and so seventy times seven stands for a perfect, an infinite number. That is to say, we should wholeheartedly forgive all people at all times, without limit.

When Jesus talked about forgiveness, he told an astounding parable: a servant owed a king ten thousand pieces of gold coins. The debt was far beyond what an ordinary man could pay back even if the king ordered him, his wife, his children, and all his possessions to be sold off as repayment. The servant thus knelt and begged, Lord, please pardon me. I will pay back everything I owe. The king felt sorry for him and remitted the entire debt.

As the servant stepped out he met a fellow servant who owed him merely one hundred pieces of silver coins. He strangled his debtor and forced him to repay the money. In the same way his fellow servant begged for clemency “Have patience with me and I will pay all.” He refused and, instead jailed the poor man till the debt was paid.
When the other servants saw what had happened they were greatly distressed and went and reported to the king what had taken place. The king summoned the first servant and said, “You wicked servant! I forgave you all that debt because you pleaded with me. Should you not have had mercy on your fellow-servant as I had mercy on you?” And in anger the king handed him over to be tortured until he should pay the entire debt.

Jesus’ conclusion was, “ So my heavenly Father will also do to every one of you, if you do not forgive your brother or sister from your heart. ”(Mt 18: 2l-35)

In the Book of Sirach God said the same thing, ”Forgive your neighbour the wrong he has done and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray. Does anyone harbour anger against another and expect healing from the Lord? If someone has no mercy towards another like himself, can he then seek pardon for his own sins?”(Sir 28: 2-4)

The succeeding verses remind us to bear in mind these points when we forgive others. First, think of our own last days and set aside any hatred that may remain. Second, remember that we are destined to die and decompose, and live according to the commandments. Third, remember the commandments of God and do not be angry with your neighbors. Fourth, think of the covenant of God the Most High and forgive others’ faults. (see Sir 28: 5 – 9).

The Bible reminds us that we will inevitably die one day. One day our eyes will close, our toes turn up and all our earthly affairs come to an end. Do old scores really matter then? Will your enemy feel the pain if you whip his corpse? Even if he feels pain of what good is it to you?

Some people hold a grudge till they enter the grave and worse still, there are some who want their descendants to take their revenge generation after generation. They really want their enmity to last forever.

We should engrave God’s commandments on our hearts. God asks us to forgive one another and refrain from anger of others. If God so unconditionally forgives us, what reasons can we possibly have to hold hatred in our hearts? Therefore we should always forgive and forgive without limit.

Jesus did not only instruct us to forgive but he lived according to his own teaching. Nailed to the cross and pierced by a crown of thorns, unable to raise his head and look to the sky, he gazed at the people cursing and mocking him below, and with no hatred in his heart, gently said, “Forgive them, Father! They do not know what they are doing.”

Jesus asks us to model ourselves on our merciful heavenly Father, God who is always tolerant, who like the sun and rain, shines and moistens alike all peoples of the earth.

The Chinese seldom talk about forgiveness, but they often talk about tolerating others. An example is this couplet: “A big belly has a great capacity, Holding the most difficult things in this world; The kind faces always smile, Smiling at the laughable people on earth.” (1) If we can tolerate others we will find it easier to forgive them.

Jesus said something else that is worth our remembering: If we cannot forgive our brother from our heart, our Father in heaven will treat us likewise. The Lord’s Prayer also reminds us, “Forgive us our sins as we forgive those who sin against us.

None of us can avoid offending others occasionally. But we must cultivate a climate, an atmosphere of faith, a willingness to forgive one another, so that there is always the possibility of starting anew.

(1)大腹能容,容天下難容之事;慈顏常笑,笑世間可笑之人。

 

 

現場講道(粵語)

神父講道


現場講道文稿

主日八分半(彌撒講道)

粵語講道


普通話講道



 

徐錦堯@fr.luketsui.idv.hk 2020