常年期第三十主日 2019年10月27日


常年期第三十主日
 
效稅吏的謙卑,學無趾的務全
 
讀經一:(德35:15-17,20-22):天主俯聽被壓迫者、謙卑者的祈禱
讀經二:(弟後4:6-8,16-18):保祿賴主之力而宣講
福 音:(路18:9-14):法利塞人和稅吏祈禱的比喻
中國文化:叔山無趾:吾雖不知務而輕用吾身,吾是以亡足;今吾來也,猶有尊足者存,吾是以務全之也。孔子:弟子勉之!夫無趾,猶務學以復補前行之惡,而況全德之人乎!
 
  有兩個人上聖殿祈禱:一個是法利塞人,另一個是稅吏。那個法利塞人站著,心裡禱告:「天主,我感謝你,因為我不像別人那樣不義……也不像這個稅吏……」那個稅吏卻遠遠站著,連舉目望天也不敢,只捶著胸膛說:「天主,可憐我這個罪人吧!」我告訴你們:這個稅吏回家,成了義人,而那個法利塞人卻不然。凡自高自大的,必被貶抑;自謙自卑的,必被高舉。(路18:10-14節錄)
 
  耶穌要向那些自鳴清高、自滿自足、自充為義人,而又輕視別人的人,說一個比喻。
 
  比喻的主角是一個法利塞人和一個稅吏。聽眾一聽,就知道這指的不單是兩個人,而且是兩類人、兩個典型。法利塞人代表的是博學、虔誠、正義、人格高尚。他進到聖殿,可以昂然矗立,充滿自信,無愧地面對他人、面對天主、面對一切。他嫉惡如仇,為人間的敗類而嘆息。他還承認自己的一切好處都是來自天主,所以他不忘讚美和感謝。
 
  他的祈禱內容由衷而真實、客觀而不誇張,在某個角度下,甚至可以算得上是誠懇而得體:「天主,我感謝你,因為我不像別人那樣勒索、不義、淫亂、放蕩;也不像這個稅吏。我每週守齋兩次,所得的收入,都捐獻十分之一。
 
  稅吏代表的是另一個典型:貪婪、不知恥、甘作外國人的走狗,沒有道德感、正義感和民族感 。對他來說,金錢就是生命,金錢就是天主,金錢就是一切。為了金錢,可以勒索和不義;有了金錢,可以生活奢侈、揮霍和荒唐。
 
  他的祈禱只有一句:「天主,可憐我這個罪人吧!」他不敢走近祭壇,只能遠遠站著,連舉目望天都不敢。因為他知道,在天主的殿中,他不會有任何的位置,在天主的眼中,他不會有任何的價值。這是他從小就學到的想法和看法。
 
  耶穌在描寫完這兩個人以後,說了一個很令人意外的結局:「我告訴你們:這個稅吏回家,成了義人;而那個法利塞人卻不然。」他還要我們記取下面的教訓:「凡自高自大的,必被貶抑;自謙自卑的,必被高舉。」
 
  今天選讀的德訓篇,亦正好為耶穌以上的話,作了一個有力的註腳:「謙卑人的祈禱,穿雲而上,不達到目的,決不罷休;除非至高者答應,為義人伸冤,執行正義,他決不停止。」(德35:21)
 
那位法利塞人的問題不是他的善,不是他的善行或他的善舉,而是他因自己的「善」而自高自大,用他的「善」去攻擊別人,由於他的「善」而鄙視他人。這是典型的「善霸」:以善作為打壓別人、踐踏別人的武器和工具。
 
面對不義,我們在譴責之餘,有沒有同情和諒解?有沒有深入的分析和找出原因?我們有沒有與他們同行?我們相不相信,一切的罪人或惡人,都有可能同時也是「受害者」,是一些值得我們同情的人,是一些需要我們去幫助和鼓勵的人?我們如何負起他們的重擔、感受他們的無能、分擔他們的憂慮、扶助他們的軟弱?
 
  那位稅吏的蒙恩當然也不是因為他的惡行,而是因為他的認罪和悔改。他不諉過、不掩飾;他直截了當承認自己有罪。他祈求寬恕,決意定改。
 
  莊子在《德充符》中,說了一個沒有腳趾的人的故事。魯國的叔山無趾因犯罪而被斬去腳趾。他去拜見孔子時,被孔子奚落。叔山無趾說:「吾唯不知務而輕用吾身,吾是以亡足。今吾來也,猶有尊足者存,吾是以務全之也。」他承認自己犯了錯誤,所以才招致被懲罸而致身體傷殘、被斬去腳趾。但他這次來,卻是因為知道有比雙腳更為可貴的生命和道德。他已經失去了腳趾,不能再失去生命和道德的完整。
 
孔子見了他的真誠和勇氣,便向弟子說:「弟子勉之!夫無趾,兀者也,猶務學以復補前行之惡,而況全德之人乎!」孔子要向弟子指出的是,這個無趾是個被砍掉腳趾的人,還知道要努力補救先前的錯事,何況道德品行乃至身形體態都沒有什麼欠缺的人呢?
 
身體傷殘而心靈不廢,曾經犯罪卻努力補過,這是多麼的難能可貴!面對著這位殘而不廢的人,我們身心健全的人更當如何加倍努力呢?讓我們向這位稅吏和叔山無趾學習吧!
常年期第三十主日
 
效税吏的谦卑,学无趾的务全
 
读经一:(德35:15-17,20-22):天主俯听被压迫者、谦卑者的祈祷
读经二:(弟后4:6-8,16-18):保禄赖主之力而宣讲
福 音:(路18:9-14):法利塞人和税吏祈祷的比喻
中国文化:叔山无趾:吾虽不知务而轻用吾身,吾是以亡足;今吾来也,犹有尊足者存,吾是以务全之也。孔子:弟子勉之!夫无趾,犹务学以复补前行之恶,而况全德之人乎!
 
  有两個人上圣殿祈祷:一個是法利塞人,另一個是税吏。那個法利塞人站著,心里祷告:「天主,我感谢你,因为我不像别人那样不义……也不像这個税吏……」那個税吏却遠遠站著,连举目望天也不敢,只捶著胸膛说:「天主,可怜我这個罪人吧!」我告诉你们:这個税吏回家,成了义人,而那個法利塞人却不然。凡自高自大的,必被贬抑;自谦自卑的,必被高举。(路18:10-14节录)
 
  耶稣要向那些自鸣清高、自满自足、自充为义人,而又轻视别人的人,说一個比喻。
 
  比喻的主角是一個法利塞人和一個税吏。听众一听,就知道这指的不单是两個人,而且是两类人、两個典型。法利塞人代表的是博学、虔诚、正义、人格高尚。他进到圣殿,可以昂然矗立,充满自信,无愧地面对他人、面对天主、面对一切。他嫉恶如仇,为人间的败类而叹息。他还承认自己的一切好处都是来自天主,所以他不忘赞美和感谢。
 
  他的祈祷内容由衷而真实、客观而不夸张,在某個角度下,甚至可以算得上是诚恳而得体:「天主,我感谢你,因为我不像别人那样勒索、不义、淫亂、放荡;也不像这個税吏。我每周守斋两次,所得的收入,都捐献十分之一。
 
  税吏代表的是另一個典型:贪婪、不知耻、甘作外国人的走狗,没有道德感、正义感和民族感 。对他来说,金钱就是生命,金钱就是天主,金钱就是一切。为了金钱,可以勒索和不义;有了金钱,可以生活奢侈、挥霍和荒唐。
 
  他的祈祷只有一句:「天主,可怜我这個罪人吧!」他不敢走近祭坛,只能遠遠站著,连举目望天都不敢。因为他知道,在天主的殿中,他不会有任何的位置,在天主的眼中,他不会有任何的价值。这是他从小就学到的想法和看法。
 
  耶稣在描写完这两個人以后,说了一個很令人意外的结局:「我告诉你们:这個税吏回家,成了义人;而那個法利塞人却不然。」他还要我们记取下面的教训:「凡自高自大的,必被贬抑;自谦自卑的,必被高举。」
 
  今天选读的德训篇,亦正好为耶稣以上的话,作了一個有力的注脚:「谦卑人的祈祷,穿云而上,不达到目的,决不罢休;除非至高者答应,为义人伸冤,执行正义,他决不停止。」(德35:21)
 
那位法利塞人的問题不是他的善,不是他的善行或他的善举,而是他因自己的「善」而自高自大,用他的「善」去攻击别人,由於他的「善」而鄙视他人。这是典型的「善霸」:以善作为打压别人、踐踏别人的武器和工具。
 
面对不义,我们在谴責之余,有没有同情和谅解?有没有深入的分析和找出原因?我们有没有与他们同行?我们相不相信,一切的罪人或恶人,都有可能同時也是「受害者」,是一些值得我们同情的人,是一些需要我们去帮助和鼓励的人?我们如何负起他们的重担、感受他们的无能、分担他们的忧虑、扶助他们的软弱?
 
  那位税吏的蒙恩当然也不是因为他的恶行,而是因为他的认罪和悔改。他不诿過、不掩饰;他直截了当承认自己有罪。他祈求宽恕,决意定改。
 
  庄子在《德充符》 中,说了一個没有脚趾的人的故事。鲁国的叔山无趾因犯罪而被斩去脚趾。他去拜见孔子時,被孔子奚落。叔山无趾说:「吾唯不知务而轻用吾身,吾是以亡足。今吾来也,犹有尊足者存,吾是以务全之也。」他承认自己犯了错误,所以才招致被惩罸而致身体伤残、被斩去脚趾。但他这次来,却是因为知道有比双脚更为可贵的生命和道德。他已经失去了脚趾,不能再失去生命和道德的完整。
 
孔子见了他的真诚和勇气,便向弟子说:「弟子勉之!夫无趾,兀者也,犹务学以复补前行之恶,而况全德之人乎!」孔子要向弟子指出的是,这個无趾是個被砍掉脚趾的人,还知道要努力补救先前的错事,何况道德品行乃至身形体态都没有什么欠缺的人呢?
 
身体伤残而心灵不废,曾经犯罪却努力补過,这是多么的难能可贵!面对著这位残而不废的人,我们身心健全的人更当如何加倍努力呢?让我们向这位税吏和叔山无趾学习吧!
THIRTIETH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME
 
Imitate the Tax-Collector's Humility, Learn from the'Toeless One's Integrity
 
First Reading (Sir 35: 15-l7, 20-22): God listens to the prayer
of the oppressed and the humble
Second Reading (2 Tim 4: 6-8, 16-18): Paul relied on the power of God to preach
Gospel (Lk 18: 9-14): Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector
Chinese Classics:
Shu Shan the' Toeless One' said,"I lost my toes because, I did not know how to behave properly. I abused myself. I came here today because there remains something more precious than my toes and I want to preserve it." (1)
Confucius said,"Learn more,pupils! If a person like the" Toeless One" still gives all of himself to repair the wrongs of his previous behavior, how much more should persons of integrity." (2)
 
“Two men went up to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax-collector. The Pharisee, standing by himself, was praying thus,'God, I thank you that I am not like other people: thieves, rogues, adulterers, or even like this tax-collector…' But the tax-collector, standing far off, would not even look up to heaven, but was beating his breast and saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!' I tell you, this man went down to his home justified rather than the other; for all who exalt themselves will be humbled, but all who humble themselves will be exalted. (Lk 18: 10-14 summarized)
 
Jesus told this parable to those persons who were self-complacent and despised others while justifying themselves.
 
The main characters were a Pharisee and a tax collector. Jesus' audience knew immediately that he was not pointing to two individuals but giving examples of two kinds of people. The Pharisee represented intellectuals, sincere persons of good moral character. Such a person would enter the temple, dignified and full of self-confidence. He faced God and other people and events with no qualms of conscience. He would hate evil as an enemy and sigh deeply about unworthy persons. He even would thank God that all that was good in himself came from God and for this he would never forget to praise and thank God.
 
The content of his prayer was full of sincerity, objectivity and was not exaggerated. From that point of view it was earnest and proper. " God, I thank you that I am not like other people: thieves, rogues, adulterers, or even like this tax-collector. I fast twice a week; I give away a tenth of all my income."
 
The tax-collector represented another category of people. Rapacious, shameless, willing to be the'running dog' of foreigners, he had no sense of morality, justice or ethnic pride. For him money was his life, his god, his all. For money he would extort others and be unjust; with money he could live sumptuously and luxuriously, spending as he wished.
 
His prayer consisted of one sentence only: "God,be merciful to me, a sinner!" He did not dare go near the altar, he could only stand afar off without even raising his eyes. He realized he had no place in the temple and in God’s eyes was worthless. From little up, he had been taught to think and look upon himself in this way.
 
After telling this story Jesus drew an unexpected conclusion, "I tell you, this tax-collector went down to his home justified rather than the Pharisee." Jesus wants us to learn from this parable: "All who exalt themselves will be humbled, but all who humble themselves will be exalted."
 
In today's first reading from the book of Sirach there is a strongly-worded footnote to Jesus' words: "The prayer of the humble pierces the clouds, and it will not rest until it reaches its goal: it will not desist until the Most High responds." (Sir 35: 21)
 
The Pharisee's problem was not his goodness or his good deeds and behavior, but because he used it as an occasion to exalt himself and attack and disdain others. He is a good example of the 'imperialism' of goodness, that is, using goodness as a weapon and instrument to oppress people.
 
Facing injustice, do we ourselves show sympathy and understanding to others rather than only denouncing them? Do we try to analyze in depth the reasons behind it? Do we try to walk with unjust people? Do we truly believe that all sinners and evil persons might at the same time be 'victims,' worthy of our sympathy and in need of our help and encouragement? How can we bear their burdens, feel their powerlessness, share their anguish, help them in their weakness?
 
The tax collector was favored not because of his wicked deeds of course, but because he acknowledged his sinfulness and he was repentant. He did not make excuses nor did he gloss over his misdeeds. He simply admitted his sins and prayed for forgiveness. He was determined to change his life.
 
In Zhuang Zi's" Evidence of Complete Excellence, there is a story about a man without toes. Shu Shan, the "Toeless One" of Lu was a cripple. His toes had been cut off as a punishment for his crimes. He called on Confucius but was met with sarcasm. Shu Shan, the Toeless One, said," I lost my toes because I did not know how to behave properly. I abused myself. I came here today because there remains something more precious than my toes and I want to preserve it." (1) He admitted that he had committed crimes and deserved to be punished. He became a cripple and had his toes cut off. He went to Confucius because he knew there were things more precious than his two legs, that is, life and morality. He had lost his toes and he did not want to lose the full life that morality brought.
 
Seeing his sincerity and courage Confucius said to his pupils, "Learn more, pupils! If a person like the"Toeless One" still gives all of himself to repair the wrongs of his previous behavior, how much more should persons of integrity." (2) Confucius wanted to point out to his pupils that even a cripple without toes like Shu Shan knew he should work hard to make up for his previous mistakes. Even more so should those who are morally and physically whole.
 
It is truly commendable when former sinners make amends, especially when they are physically deficient but have blameless hearts. Should not those who are healthy in body and soul, when confronted with persons less fortunate, put forth even more effort? Let us take lessons from the tax collector and the toeless Shu Shan!
 
(1) 叔山無趾:吾雖不知務而輕用吾身,吾是以亡足;今吾來也,猶有尊足者存,吾是以務全之也。
(2) 孔子:弟子勉之!夫無趾,猶務學以復補前行之惡,而況全德之人乎!

現場講道(粵語)

教友證道


神父講道


現場講道文稿

主日八分半(彌撒講道)

粵語講道


普通話講道



 

徐錦堯@fr.luketsui.idv.hk 2019