常年期第十五主日 2019年07月14日


常年期第十五主日

四海皆兄弟,萬眾共一心

讀經一:(申30:10-14):誡命就在人心裡
讀經二:(哥1:15-20):藉基督人可達致圓滿
福 音:(路10:25-37):善心的撒瑪黎雅人
中國文化:荀巨伯捨命全交;胡人軍官說:「我輩無義之人,而入有義之國。」


那人對耶穌說:「誰是我的近人呢?」耶穌答說:「有一個人從耶路撒冷下來,到耶里哥去,遇到了強盜;他們剝去他的衣服,把他打得半死,丟下他就走了……有一個司祭……一個肋未人……一個撒瑪黎雅人……你認為這三個人中,誰做了那個遇到強盜者的近人呢?」他答說:「是憐憫他的那個人。」耶穌就對他說:「你也照樣去做吧!」
(路10:29-37)

這是聖經中一個很出名的故事。有一個法學士問耶穌:「師傅,我該做什麼,才能得永生呢?」他這樣問,明顯只是為了試探耶穌,因為這個法學士從自己的傳統中,老早已經獲得了他以為是絕對正確的答案:即凡嚴守梅瑟法律的人,都將復活而得永生。

但耶穌反問他:「法律上怎麼說?我的意思不是請你告訴我,一般人如何說,而是請你深入的反省一下,天主所頒佈的法律,它本身記載了什麼?」法學士不敢怠慢,把自己從法律上學來的東西,據實回答:「你要全心、全靈、全力、全意愛上主你的天主,並且要愛近人如愛自己。」(路10:27)這是一種全面而絕對的愛,對象包括天主,也包括人。

其實,我們和那位法學士都同樣相信愛主、愛人的意義和價值。但如果我們在「愛人」這方面,再深入一點去問一個所謂「六何」的問題,即何人?何事?何地?何時?如何?為何?我們就覺得問題並不簡單了。至少,我們要弄清楚:誰愛?愛誰?如何愛?「我」願意去愛嗎?「我」願意為愛而付出代價嗎?

所以法學士才有第二問:「究竟誰是我的近人呢?」這就引出了耶穌所講最出名的其中一個比喻——慈善的撒瑪黎雅人比喻。

比喻是這樣的:有一個人受了傷,躺在路旁,亟需別人的救助。有兩個他同族的人,其中一位還是司祭,他們都只是在他的身旁經過,沒有救他。後來有一位和他不同國家、種族和信仰的人,即一個被猶太人視為「外邦人」的撒瑪黎雅人,一個與他無親無故的陌生人,卻主動伸出援手。這個陌生的外邦人的愛相當周到,他不單對他動了憐憫的心,還很徹底的幫他解決問題。

首先,他幫他渡過目前的困境,在他的傷處倒上油和酒,而且包紮好。然後,他帶他到一個安全的客棧,悉心照顧他。最後,他還諄諄的吩咐店主,要給他好好的照料,所有的花費,他都會全部承擔和支付。

我想起了《世說新語》中一個「捨命全交」的故事。

荀巨伯到遠方探朋友,剛好遇到「胡賊」來攻城(這裡的「胡賊」大概即等於聖經中的「外邦人」)。朋友們都勸巨伯趕快逃跑。巨伯說:「為了貪生而敗壞做朋友的義氣,這是我荀巨伯會作的事嗎?」他於是留下來照顧朋友。胡賊入城見到荀巨伯,就對他說:「全城的人都逃光了,你們兩人好大的膽子,竟敢獨自留下!」巨伯說:「朋友病重,我不忍心捨他而去,寧願犧牲自己,來換他活命。」胡賊就很感嘆地說出下面的名言:「我輩無義之人,而入有義之國。」於是撤軍離去,全城得以保全。

「胡賊」本來被所謂「禮義之邦」的中原人視為野蠻人,既不文明,又沒有文化。現在,這些「野蠻人」竟然可以承認自己的缺點,並懂得欣賞對頭人的優點!這就有點像耶穌所說的,不信天主的「外邦人」,竟然比信天主的「選民」更有信仰的意味。

民族感是好的,但自以為是、自我中心的排他性民族感,卻非天主的聖意。所以耶穌經常提醒他的同胞:天主愛一切人,連猶太人所不喜歡的外邦人,也有可能得到天主的祝福,他們甚至可能比天主的選民有更大的信德和愛德。

這個比喻除了教我們如何去愛「近人」外,也應使我們意識到「誰是我們的近人」,因為愛可以打破一切人間的阻隔,把一切人看作近人,使所有人變成近人。

所以,近人並不單是指在我們身旁的人,也不限於我們的家人或朋友。我們主動接觸誰,誰就是我們的「近人」,他們可以遠在千里之外。其實,只要我們肯張開雙手,敞開胸懷,天下的人,都是我們的「近人」。

 

常年期第十五主日

四海皆兄弟,万众共一心

读经一:(申30:10-14):诫命就在人心里
读经二:(哥1:15-20):藉基督人可达致圆满
福 音:(路10:25-37):善心的撒玛黎雅人
中国文化:荀巨伯舍命全交;胡人军官说:「我辈无义之人,而入有义之国。」


那人对耶稣说:「谁是我的近人呢?」耶稣答说:「有一個人从耶路撒冷下来,到耶里哥去,遇到了强盗;他们剥去他的衣服,把他打得半死,丢下他就走了……有一個司祭……一個肋未人……一個撒玛黎雅人……你认为这三個人中,谁做了那個遇到强盗者的近人呢?」他答说:「是怜悯他的那個人。」耶稣就对他说:「你也照样去做吧!」
(路10:29-37)

这是圣经中一個很出名的故事。有一個法学士問耶稣:「师傅,我該做什么,才能得永生呢?」他这样問,明显只是为了试探耶稣,因为这個法学士从自己的传统中,老早已经获得了他以为是绝对正确的答案:即凡严守梅瑟法律的人,都将复活而得永生。

但耶稣反問他:「法律上怎么说?我的意思不是请你告诉我,一般人如何说,而是请你深入的反省一下,天主所颁布的法律,它本身记载了什么?」法学士不敢怠慢,把自己从法律上学来的东西,据实回答:「你要全心、全灵、全力、全意爱上主你的天主,并且要爱近人如爱自己。」(路10:27)这是一种全面而绝对的爱,对象包括天主,也包括人。

其实,我们和那位法学士都同样相信爱主、爱人的意义和价值。但如果我们在「爱人」这方面,再深入一点去問一個所谓「六何」的問题,即何人?何事?何地?何時?如何?为何?我们就觉得問题并不简单了。至少,我们要弄清楚:谁爱?爱谁?如何爱?「我」願意去爱吗?「我」願意为爱而付出代价吗?

所以法学士才有第二問:「究竟谁是我的近人呢?」这就引出了耶稣所讲最出名的其中一個比喻——慈善的撒玛黎雅人比喻。

比喻是这样的:有一個人受了伤,躺在路旁,亟需别人的救助。有两個他同族的人,其中一位还是司祭,他们都只是在他的身旁经過,没有救他。后来有一位和他不同国家、种族和信仰的人,即一個被犹太人视为「外邦人」的撒玛黎雅人,一個与他无亲无故的陌生人,却主动伸出援手。这個陌生的外邦人的爱相当周到,他不单对他动了怜悯的心,还很彻底的帮他解决問题。

首先,他帮他渡過目前的困境,在他的伤处倒上油和酒,而且包扎好。然后,他带他到一個安全的客栈,悉心照顾他。最后,他还谆谆的吩咐店主,要给他好好的照料,所有的花费,他都会全部承担和支付。

我想起了《世说新语》 中一個「舍命全交」的故事。

荀巨伯到遠方探朋友,刚好遇到「胡贼」来攻城(这里的「胡贼」大概即等於圣经中的「外邦人」)。朋友们都劝巨伯赶快逃跑。巨伯说:「为了贪生而败坏做朋友的义气,这是我荀巨伯会作的事吗?」他於是留下来照顾朋友。胡贼入城见到荀巨伯,就对他说:「全城的人都逃光了,你们两人好大的胆子,竟敢独自留下!」巨伯说:「朋友病重,我不忍心舍他而去,宁願牺牲自己,来换他活命。」胡贼就很感叹地说出下面的名言:「我辈无义之人,而入有义之国。」於是撤军離去,全城得以保全。

「胡贼」本来被所谓「礼义之邦」的中原人视为野蛮人,既不文明,又没有文化。现在,这些「野蛮人」竟然可以承认自己的缺点,并懂得欣赏对头人的优点!这就有点像耶稣所说的,不信天主的「外邦人」,竟然比信天主的「选民」更有信仰的意味。

民族感是好的,但自以为是、自我中心的排他性民族感,却非天主的圣意。所以耶稣经常提醒他的同胞:天主爱一切人,连犹太人所不喜欢的外邦人,也有可能得到天主的祝福,他们甚至可能比天主的选民有更大的信德和爱德。

这個比喻除了教我们如何去爱「近人」外,也应使我们意识到「谁是我们的近人」,因为爱可以打破一切人间的阻隔,把一切人看作近人,使所有人变成近人。

所以,近人并不单是指在我们身旁的人,也不限於我们的家人或朋友。我们主动接触谁,谁就是我们的「近人」,他们可以遠在千里之外。其实,只要我们肯张開双手,敞開胸怀,天下的人,都是我们的「近人」。

 

Fifteenth Sunday in Ordinary Time

Within the Four Seas All People are Brothers and Sisters
A Million Hearts are United as One


First Reading (Deut 30: 10-14): The commandments are in our hearts
Second Reading (Col 1: 15-20): Through Christ we attain fullness
Gospel (Lk 10: 25-37): The Good Samaritan

Chinese Classics:
“Xun Jubo sacrificed his life for his friend. The army officer of the Huns said, ‘We people who are unrighteous are entering a country of righteous people.’ “(1)

A man asked Jesus, ‘And who is my neighbour?’ Jesus replied, “A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell into the hands of robbers, who stripped him,beat him, and went away, leaving him half-dead... a priest... a Levite... a Samaritan... Which of these three, do you think, was a neighbour to the man who fell into the hands of the robbers?’ He said ‘The one who showed him mercy.' Jesus said to him, ‘Go and do likewise.’ (Lk 10: 29-37)

This is a very well-known Biblical story. A certain Scribe asked Jesus, “Rabbi, what shall I do to gain eternal life?” He was obviously just testing Jesus. That Scribe should have known the absolutely correct answer already from his own traditions, that those who strictly followed the Mosaic law would rise and obtain eternal life.

So Jesus asked him, “What does the Law say? I am not asking you to tell me what everyone says but rather for you to reflect a moment, what are the implications of the Divine Law?’ The Scribe did not dare delay but based on his knowledge of the Law, answered promptly, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbour as yourself. “ (Lk 10:27). . That is, it is a complete and all-embracing love which includes God and also all other people.

Actually, we are the same as the Scribe, we believe in the meaning and value of loving God and others also. But if we go more deeply into 'loving others' we might ask the 'six 'W's' – Who? What? Where? When? How? Why? We might think these questions are not simple. At least, we want to be clear. Who is going to love? Whom will we love? How will we love? Am I willing to love? Am I willing to sacrifice for those I love?

That is why the Scribe asked the second question, ”Who is my neighbour?” That is how Jesus came to tell the famous parable, ‘The Good Samaritan”.

This, then, is the parable: There was an injured person lying on the roadside. He really needed someone to help him. Two people from his own tribe passed by, one of them even was a priest. They passed by but did not stop to save him. Later there came a person from another country, tribe and religion, a Samaritan, who was considered an ‘outsider’ by the Jewish people, a stranger who had no ties to them. Without being asked he put out his hand to help the wounded man. It was that outsider, that stranger, whose love was more encompassing. He not only was moved to pity, he also helped him in every possible way.

First, the Samaritan saved the injured man from a very difficult situation. He poured oil and wine on the injured man's wounds and afterwards bandaged them. Then he took the injured person to a safe inn and took care of him. Lastly he told the innkeeper to take care of the injured man solicitiously and he would pay all the expenses incurred.

This reminds me of a Chinese story, “Sacrificing One's Life for a Friend” in “New Meanings in Old Sayings.” Xun Jubo was visiting a friend in a distant city. He arrived there just as the barbarian Huns were attacking the city. (The Huns were probably the equivalent of the 'foreigners' in Scripture). His friend advised him to escape as quickly as possible. But Jubo said, 'To forsake my friend to save my life is against my conscience. Is this something I, Xun Jubo would do?' So he stayed behind to look after his friend. When the Huns entered the city and saw Xun Jubo they said to him, ‘All the people of the city have fled, only you two remain behind. You really are daring!’ Jubo replied, ‘My friend is seriously ill and I cannot leave him. I would rather sacrifice my own life in exchange for his.’ The Hun leader sighed and said the following famous words, “We people who are unrighteous are entering a country of righteous people.” (1)They withdrew their army and the entire city was saved.

The Huns were considered barbarians by those people who considered themselves 'highly cultured.' They looked on them as uncivilized and since they were illiterate they had no culture. Yet these 'barbarians' were able to acknowledge their deficiencies and know how to appreciate the virtues of those more advanced than they. This was somewhat like what Jesus said about the 'stranger' who did not believe in God. He had a kind of faith greater than that of God's 'Chosen People.'

It is good to be proud of one's ethnicity but self-righteousness and self-centredness to the point of being derogatory towards others is not what God wants. Therefore, Jesus often reminded his own people: God loves everyone, including the foreigners whom the Jews disliked. They had probably also received God's blessings and may even have had greater faith and love than God's 'Chosen People.'

This parable not only teaches us how to love our neighbor, but should also help us to be more aware of “who is our neighbor.” Love can break down all barriers among people, so that we are able to look on everyone as a neighbor, and all people can become neighbours to each other.

Therefore 'neighbor' does not only mean the people near us, nor is it limited to family or friends. Whomever we are in contact with are 'neighbours' to us though they may be thousands of miles away. Truly, we need only open our arms and take them to our hearts, and people all over the world will become our neighbors.

(1)荀巨伯捨命全交;胡人軍官說:「我輩無義之人,而入有義之國。」

 

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徐錦堯@fr.luketsui.idv.hk 2019