常年期卅一主日 2018年11月04日


常年期卅一主日

全心全靈愛主、盡意盡力愛人

讀經一:(申6:2-6):要全心、全靈、全力愛上主
讀經二:(希7:23-28):基督是永恆的司祭
福 音:(谷12:28-34):最大的誡命
中國文化: 立地以上承天,承天道以隆人。

有一個經師前來問耶穌說:「哪條誡命是第一條呢?」耶穌回答說:「第一條是:『以色列!聽著!上主、我們的天主是唯一的天主。你當全心、全靈、全意、全力愛上主,你的天主。』第二條是:『你當愛人如己。』再沒有別的誡命比這兩條更大了。」
(谷12:28-31)

一位經師問耶穌,「哪一條」誡命是第一條誡命,按瑪竇福音22:35的記載,這裡所謂第一條誡命,就是指那「最大的」一條誡命。

耶穌的答案來自申命紀:「以色列啊!聽著!上主,我們的天主是唯一的天主。你當全心、全靈、全力,愛上主,你的天主。」(申6:4-5)

但耶穌隨即刻意地加上了另一條誡命:「第二條是:你當愛人如己。

人家問耶穌一條誡命,他答了兩條。
在耶穌心中,這「一條」誡命有「兩個」實踐的方向;而這兩條誡命,也可說是同一條誡命的兩個層面。

世界上的一切宗教都是以神為主,猶太教尤其強調神的獨一無二性,和他的「排他性」。神和人,愛神和愛其他人或其他東西,幾乎都是勢不兩立的!

所以在古經中,亞巴郎可以為天主殺兒祭主;而整本古經,都有很多天主協助猶太人殺戮外邦人的故事。有時甚至要屠城、滅族。

這本來沒有什麼不對,天主確是至高無上的造物主,偉大無比的真神,一切生命都是從他而來。他有權創造生命,也有權取回生命。生命原本便是為天主而存在的。

這就是猶太人心目中,天主的形象:一個赫赫威嚴、高高在上、君臨天下、掌握人類生殺大權,賞報人、也懲人的大判官、大主宰。

所以人在神面前也只能蒙面、脫鞋、跪下、不得仰視。連碰一碰屬神的約櫃,也會被視為大不敬,而招致殺身之禍。

天主和他的宗教,就是這樣長期地被描繪成如此的殘酷和不近人情。小孩子聽了也許要發惡夢。

古經中的天主,其形象有時只是亞巴郎的天主,是以色列的家神和族神,甚至只是一位戰神。

耶穌決心終止人們對上主的這種基於恐懼的信仰。他要告訴我們:這是一個充滿愛,也邀請人們去愛的天主。這個天主不再與人對立。我們在主內,可以愛人愛得更深,我們在愛人時,可以愛主愛得更誠。

我們人類對天主的愛,不再獨立而游離於我們的生活和生命之外。相反地,如果我們不按天主的聖意去生活,不依天主的聖意去愛人,即使我們天天喊著:「主啊!主啊!」都不能獲得救恩。

耶穌形容這二而一、一而二的誡命,就是最大的誡命:「再沒有別的誡命比這兩條更大了。」一切都應從屬在這條愛的誡命之下。

這二而一的誡命是一切誡命的「綱」,其他的誡命都是「領」、是「目」;這兩條誡命也是誡命中的「大體」,其他的誡命都是「小體」。提綱就會摯領,綱舉就會目張;符合了「大體」的要求,其他的「小體」就自然會水到渠成。

但耶穌的話並不常常被所有的信徒遵守。宗教仍然有時會變得不近人情;愛神和愛人有時也被人無端地對立起來。以神的名義而進行的「宗教戰爭」,更是一個主張愛主愛人的教會所不應有,卻是已經發生了不少次的歷史事實。

中國人的宗教精神是以人為主的,即使信神,舉行神的敬禮,或甚至談到靈界和來生,也是為了教人好好地活於今世,積極地面對今日的生命。

這就是中國宗教精神中所謂的「立地以上承天,承天道以隆人」,即是說,我們要紮紮實實地活在地上,而仰體天心,並按照上天的意旨,而造福世人。

這其實就是耶穌所說「愛主愛人」的最好註腳,和最佳的生活表現。

 

 

常年期卅一主日

全心全灵爱主、尽意尽力爱人

读经一:(申6:2-6):要全心、全灵、全力爱上主
读经二:(希7:23-28):基督是永恒的司祭
福 音:(谷12:28-34):最大的诫命
中国文化: 立地以上承天,承天道以隆人。

有一個经师前来問耶稣说:「哪条诫命是第一条呢?」耶稣回答说:「第一条是:『以色列!听著!上主、我们的天主是唯一的天主。你当全心、全灵、全意、全力爱上主,你的天主。』第二条是:『你当爱人如己。』再没有别的诫命比这两条更大了。」
(谷12:28-31)

一位经师問耶稣,「哪一条」诫命是第一条诫命,按玛窦福音22:35的记载,这里所谓第一条诫命,就是指那「最大的」一条诫命。

耶稣的答案来自申命纪:「以色列啊!听著!上主,我们的天主是唯一的天主。你当全心、全灵、全力,爱上主,你的天主。」(申6:4-5)

但耶稣随即刻意地加上了另一条诫命:「第二条是:你当爱人如己。

人家問耶稣一条诫命,他答了两条。
在耶稣心中,这「一条」诫命有「两個」实踐的方向;而这两条诫命,也可说是同一条诫命的两個层面。

世界上的一切宗教都是以神为主,犹太教尤其强调神的独一无二性,和他的「排他性」。神和人,爱神和爱其他人或其他东西,幾乎都是势不两立的!

所以在古经中,亚巴郎可以为天主杀儿祭主;而整本古经,都有很多天主协助犹太人杀戮外邦人的故事。有時甚至要屠城、灭族。

这本来没有什么不对,天主确是至高无上的造物主,伟大无比的真神,一切生命都是从他而来。他有权创造生命,也有权取回生命。生命原本便是为天主而存在的。

这就是犹太人心目中,天主的形象:一個赫赫威严、高高在上、君临天下、掌握人类生杀大权,赏报人、也惩人的大判官、大主宰。

所以人在神面前也只能蒙面、脱鞋、跪下、不得仰视。连碰一碰属神的约柜,也会被视为大不敬,而招致杀身之祸。

天主和他的宗教,就是这样长期地被描绘成如此的残酷和不近人情。小孩子听了也许要发恶梦。

古经中的天主,其形象有時只是亚巴郎的天主,是以色列的家神和族神,甚至只是一位战神。

耶稣决心终止人们对上主的这种基於恐惧的信仰。他要告诉我们:这是一個充满爱,也邀请人们去爱的天主。这個天主不再与人对立。我们在主内,可以爱人爱得更深,我们在爱人時,可以爱主爱得更诚。

我们人类对天主的爱,不再独立而游離於我们的生活和生命之外。相反地,如果我们不按天主的圣意去生活,不依天主的圣意去爱人,即使我们天天喊著:「主啊!主啊!」都不能获得救恩。

耶稣形容这二而一、一而二的诫命,就是最大的诫命:「再没有别的诫命比这两条更大了。」一切都应从属在这条爱的诫命之下。

这二而一的诫命是一切诫命的「纲」,其他的诫命都是「领」、是「目」;这两条诫命也是诫命中的「大体」,其他的诫命都是「小体」。提纲就会摯领,纲举就会目张;符合了「大体」的要求,其他的「小体」就自然会水到渠成。

但耶稣的话并不常常被所有的信徒遵守。宗教仍然有時会变得不近人情;爱神和爱人有時也被人无端地对立起来。以神的名义而进行的「宗教战争」,更是一個主张爱主爱人的教会所不应有,却是已经发生了不少次的历史事实。

中国人的宗教精神是以人为主的,即使信神,举行神的敬礼,或甚至谈到灵界和来生,也是为了教人好好地活於今世,积极地面对今日的生命。

这就是中国宗教精神中所谓的「立地以上承天,承天道以隆人」,即是说,我们要扎扎实实地活在地上,而仰体天心,并按照上天的意旨,而造福世人。

这其实就是耶稣所说「爱主爱人」的最好注脚,和最佳的生活表现。

 

 

THIRTY-FIRST SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME

Love God with your Whole Heart and Also Love your Neighbor

First Reading (Deut 6:2-6): Love God with your whole heart, soul and might
Second Reading (Heb 7:23-28) Christ is the eternal High Priest
Gospel: (Mk 12: 28-34) The greatest commandment
Chinese classics:
-“Stand firm to inherit the gift from the Heavens above. Use the inheritance from the Heavens to do good for mankind.” (1)

“One of the scribes came near and asked him, ‘Which commandment is the first of all?’ Jesus answered, ‘The first is, ‘Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God, the Lord is one; you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.’ The second is this, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no other commandment greater than these.” (Mk 12: 28-31)

One of the Scribes asked Jesus, ‘Which commandment is the first?’ According to Matthew's Gospel (22:35), the phrase the ‘first commandment’ referred to the ‘greatest commandment.’ Jesus’ quoted the Book of Deuteronomy (6: 4-5) in answer: .”Hear, O Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord alone. You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might.” (Deut. 6: 4-5) But Jesus immediately added another commandment, “The second is this, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” The person asked for only ONE commandment but Jesus replied with TWO. In his mind the one commandment had two aspects. Or one could say the single commandment has two layers.

In all religions of the world, the ‘Great Spirit’ is the focus of concern. Judaism especially emphasizes the uniqueness and exclusiveness of God. No parallel whatsoever can be drawn between God and human beings, or between loving God and loving humans or other creatures!

Therefore in the Old Testament, to worship God Abraham could sacrifice his son; and throughout the Old Testament many stories relate how God helped the Jewish people to kill the Gentiles. Sometimes this even led to genocide or the massacre of an entire city.

Actually there should be nothing wrong in this because God is the Supreme Creator, the great and incomparable True Spirit and the Source of all Life. God has power to bestow life and power to take it away. Life itself exists for God alone.

The mental image the Jews had of God was that God was the highest and most venerable Supreme Being. God was Judge and Master with supreme power over life and death, reward and punishment. Therefore when one was in God's presence, a person must cover one's face, remove one's shoes, kneel down and not gaze upon the face of God. If one but touched the holy Ark of the Covenant inadvertently that person had committed the greatest offence and the penalty was death.

For many centuries God and God's religion was described in this way, as cruel and distant from human beings. Children on hearing this would even have nightmares! In the Old Testament the image of God sometimes was of a God only of Abraham or the family and tribe of Israel. Sometimes God was even only a God of war.

Jesus was determined to end this kind of belief in God based on fear. He wanted to tell us that God is a God full of love who invites us to love Him in return. Such a God does not stand in opposition to humankind. We are in God and so we can love other persons more deeply, and by loving others we can love God more earnestly.

The love we human beings have for God is not separate or detached from our ordinary lives. On the contrary, if we do not live according to God's will and heed God's command to love others, even if we call out daily, ‘Lord, Lord’, we will not be able to attain salvation.

Jesus described this two-in-one or one-in-two commandment as the greatest commandment: “There is no other commandment greater than these.” All else is under this commandment of love. This two-level commandment is the ultimate goal of all the other commandments; the others are secondary or only for leading to that ultimate goal. Or this is the ‘whole,’ the others are the ‘parts.’ We first draw up an outline according to the ultimate goal and then list the details to attain that goal; when we have fulfilled the demands of the ultimate goal, the details naturally fall into place.

But Jesus' words are not always observed by all his followers. Religion can at times become inhuman; we human beings sometimes act as if to love God and at the same time to love one's neighbor are opposed to each other. For example, to wage a ‘religious war’ in the name of God certainly should never be countenanced by a church that preaches love of God and love of neighbor. Yet this has occurred many times throughout history.

In the religions of the Chinese people, the focus is on human beings. Even in those religions that emphasize belief and worship of a Supreme Being, or talk about the spiritual realm or a future life, this is in order to help people lead good lives in this world and face the challenges of the present life in a positive manner .

The spirit of Chinese religions is this: “Stand firm to inherit the gifts from the Heavens above. Use the inheritance from the Heavens to do good for mankind.” (1) This means that while we look up to the heavens we should wholeheartedly live in the concrete world today and follow the will of Heaven to work for the well-being of humankind.

In actuality to “love God and love your neighbor” is the best footnote to Jesus' words, and is the clearest manifestation of Christian Life.

(1)立地以上承天,承天道以隆人。

 

 

現場講道(粵語)

教友證道


神父講道


現場講道文稿

主日八分半(彌撒講道)

粵語講道


普通話講道



 

徐錦堯@fr.luketsui.idv.hk 2017