常年期第三十主日 2018年10月28日


常年期第三十主日

體諒源於自省,同情貴在知心

讀經一:(耶31:7-9):上主召回各地的遺民
讀經二:(希5:1-6):基督為大司祭
福 音:(谷10:46-52):治好耶里哥的瞎子
中國文化: 忠恕之道:責己以忠、待人以恕。 所求乎子,以事父,未能也;所求乎朋友,先施之,未能也。

他同情無知和迷途的人,因為他自己也有人性的弱點。因此他為人民奉獻贖罪祭,同樣也該為自己獻祭。
(希5:2-3)

聖經是天主「此時」、「此地」,「向我」所說的話;它不只是一個故事或在說一些遙遠的、抽象的,和我的生命毫無關係的話。所以,我們在讀經時,我們一定要問:今天天主要向我啟示什麼?他要我作什麼?他希望我的生活,有什麼改變?

今天的聖經一方面描述耶穌的司祭職,另一方面也希望藉對其他司祭的描寫,而提醒我們一些做人的道理。

保祿在希伯來書中,從論述大司祭的資格開始,認為值得強調的有兩大點:

第一、大司祭必須是「人」,從人間挑選出來;他不是天使,也不是其他的神衹。

第二、司祭是由天主所派遣;他既不是毛遂自薦,也不是經由選舉產生。

天主教有其自天主而來、由上而下的一面,這就是我們所說的召叫。它不是一個普通的人間社團。它有教義、教規、禮儀,當然也有主持禮儀的「司祭」。

保祿在這裡描述得更多的,似乎是司祭的第一點:大司祭選自人群,來自人間,是真真實實的「人」。

既是人,就有人性的弱點;他要為人民奉獻贖罪祭,也要為自己奉獻贖罪祭。他雖然奉行的是神聖的事業,但是他一點也不比別人強、或比別人好,或比別人聖潔。

這種自我覺醒,決定了在天主教會內作司祭,或作領導者的戰戰兢兢,如臨深淵、如履薄冰的謙虛性格。他真的要很小心,免得救了別人,卻失落了自己。

一個「罪人的教會」對別人固然有要求,對自己就更加要有要求。

保祿更進一步暗示,教會內的領導,也許還應對自己要求嚴一些,而對別人要求寬一些。這可使他同情無知和迷途的人,並使他懂得體諒之道。

體諒就是一種設身處地、易地而處的能力。能體諒,就能同情;能同情,就能寬恕。

孔子認為做人要懂得「忠恕之道」。教會內有信仰的人,就更加要懂得忠恕之道。忠恕之道就是「責己以忠、待人以恕」,即對自己要求多一些,對別人要求少一些。

當我在大陸聽到別人責難某某神長如此如此的時候,我的心有點難受。我並不認為這位神長可以或應該如此如此,我只是認為,如果我身處在他的情況下,我可能並不止於如此而已。我又何忍過於責難,或有何資格拾起「第一塊石頭」,去定他的罪呢?

中國文化本來就有「向裡用力」的特點,即所謂「向裡用力的人生觀」:不能要求別人的,就要求自己吧!


孔子曾經認為在「君子之道」中,有四樣是他做不到的,就是「所求乎子,以事父,未能也;所求乎臣,以事君,未能也;所求乎弟,以事兄,未能也;所求乎朋友,先施之,未能也。」(中庸:13)即是說,孔子認為自己如果對別人有某種要求,他自己就得先按這個要求而做到;但他卻認為自己未能做到這一點。即是說,如果他想自己的兒子要怎樣對待自己,自己卻未能這樣對待自己的父親!

我們不也是這樣的嗎?我們對於忠恕之道,有時竟是反其道而行:我們寬於責己,卻嚴於責人;我們一點都不體諒,也就一點都不同情和寬恕。

在心理學上有所謂「取角」的活動,就是在角色辦演的活動中,想辦法去「代入」某個角色的處境,體會他的心情。這是一種大大有助於我們對別人的體諒和同情的活動。

 

 

常年期第三十主日

体谅源於自省,同情贵在知心

读经一:(耶31:7-9):上主召回各地的遗民
读经二:(希5:1-6):基督为大司祭
福 音:(谷10:46-52):治好耶里哥的瞎子
中国文化: 忠恕之道:責己以忠、待人以恕。所求乎子,以事父,未能也;所求乎朋友,先施之,未能也。

他同情无知和迷途的人,因为他自己也有人性的弱点。因此他为人民奉献赎罪祭,同样也該为自己献祭。
(希5:2-3)

圣经是天主「此時」、「此地」,「向我」所说的话;它不只是一個故事或在说一些遥遠的、抽象的,和我的生命毫无关系的话。所以,我们在读经時,我们一定要問:今天天主要向我启示什么?他要我作什么?他希望我的生活,有什么改变?

今天的圣经一方面描述耶稣的司祭职,另一方面也希望藉对其他司祭的描写,而提醒我们一些做人的道理。

保禄在希伯来书中,从论述大司祭的资格開始,认为值得强调的有两大点:

第一、大司祭必须是「人」,从人间挑选出来;他不是天使,也不是其他的神只。

第二、司祭是由天主所派遣;他既不是毛遂自荐,也不是经由选举產生。

天主教有其自天主而来、由上而下的一面,这就是我们所说的召叫。它不是一個普通的人间社团。它有教义、教规、礼仪,当然也有主持礼仪的「司祭」。

保禄在这里描述得更多的,似乎是司祭的第一点:大司祭选自人群,来自人间,是真真实实的「人」。

既是人,就有人性的弱点;他要为人民奉献赎罪祭,也要为自己奉献赎罪祭。他虽然奉行的是神圣的事业,但是他一点也不比别人强、或比别人好,或比别人圣洁。

这种自我觉醒,决定了在天主教会内作司祭,或作领导者的战战兢兢,如临深渊、如履薄冰的谦虚性格。他真的要很小心,免得救了别人,却失落了自己。

一個「罪人的教会」对别人固然有要求,对自己就更加要有要求。

保禄更进一步暗示,教会内的领导,也许还应对自己要求严一些,而对别人要求宽一些。这可使他同情无知和迷途的人,并使他懂得体谅之道。

体谅就是一种设身处地、易地而处的能力。能体谅,就能同情;能同情,就能宽恕。

孔子认为做人要懂得「忠恕之道」。教会内有信仰的人,就更加要懂得忠恕之道。忠恕之道就是「責己以忠、待人以恕」,即对自己要求多一些,对别人要求少一些。

当我在大陆听到别人責难某某神长如此如此的時候,我的心有点难受。我并不认为这位神长可以或应該如此如此,我只是认为,如果我身处在他的情况下,我可能并不止於如此而已。我又何忍過於責难,或有何资格拾起「第一块石头」,去定他的罪呢?

中国文化本来就有「向里用力」的特点,即所谓「向里用力的人生观」:不能要求别人的,就要求自己吧!


孔子曾经认为在「君子之道」中,有四样是他做不到的,就是「所求乎子,以事父,未能也;所求乎臣,以事君,未能也;所求乎弟,以事兄,未能也;所求乎朋友,先施之,未能也。」(中庸:13)即是说,孔子认为自己如果对别人有某种要求,他自己就得先按这個要求而做到;但他却认为自己未能做到这一点。即是说,如果他想自己的儿子要怎样对待自己,自己却未能这样对待自己的父亲!

我们不也是这样的吗?我们对於忠恕之道,有時竟是反其道而行:我们宽於責己,却严於責人;我们一点都不体谅,也就一点都不同情和宽恕。

在心理学上有所谓「取角」的活动,就是在角色办演的活动中,想办法去「代入」某個角色的处境,体会他的心情。这是一种大大有助於我们对别人的体谅和同情的活动。

 

 

THIRTIETH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME

Tolerance Arises from Self-reflection
Empathy is Valuable in Understanding Others

First Reading (Jer 31: 7-9 God calls the remnant to return to their land
Second Reading (Heb 5: 1 -6) Jesus is the High Priest
Gospel (Mk 10: 46-52) Healing of the blind man from Jericho

Chinese Classics: -
“The Way of loyalty and consideration: Loyalty is to take responsibility as far as one cant, and consideration is to forgive others as much as possible..”(1)
-“
-“To serve my father, as I would require my son to serve me: to this I have not attained. To set the example in behaving towards a friend as I would require him to behave towards me: to this I have not attained. “ (2)

“He is able to deal gently with the ignorant and wayward, since he himself is subject to weakness, and because of this he must offer sacrifice for his own sins as well as for those of the people.” (Heb 5: 2 – 3)

The Bible is the word God speaks to me here and now. It is not just a story or something from afar, or abstract, or having no relation with my life. Accordingly, while reading the Bible we need to ask: What is God revealing to me today? What is God asking me to do now? What changes in my life does God hope I will make? Today’s scripture gives a description of Jesus' priesthood and also through writings of other priests gives us some principles for human living.

In the Epistle to the Hebrews Paul finds it worthwhile to emphasize these two points about the qualifications of the High Priest:
1) The High Priest must be a human person, chosen from among other human beings. That is, he is neither an angel nor a spirit.
2) The Priest is appointed by God; he does not recommend himself nor is he elected to his position by others.

The Catholic Church has the concept of a “call” which comes from God, from above down to us. The church is not an ordinary social group. It has doctrine, rules of behavior, rituals. Of course it also has ‘priests’ who preside over liturgical services.

Paul mentions something even more important. The High Priest is selected from among the people, comes from the people and is truly human like other people.

Since he is human, the priest is subject to human weakness. He must offer sacrifice for the sins of the people, but also offer sacrifice for his own sins. Although the task he undertakes is a sacred one, he is neither stronger, better nor holier than others.

This self-awareness should lead to humility for those determined to be the Catholic Church's priests, its leaders in life's struggles. They must always be careful that in trying to save others, they fail to save themselves. A Church of sinners makes demands on others, but even more on oneself.

Paul goes further, implying that leaders in the Church should demand perhaps even more of themselves, and be more lenient with others. Such an attitude will help them to be gentle and understanding with those who may be ignorant or who go astray, and enable them to be empathetic with others. Empathy is the ability to put oneself in the others' shoes. Those who are able to be empathetic can sympathize with others, and then understands how to forgive.

.Confucius thought that we should follow “The Way of loyalty and consideration for others.” For those of us with religious beliefs, we should pay even more attention to this Way. “Loyalty is to take responsibility as far as one can and consideration is to forgive others as much as possible.” (1) This means that we should expect more of ourselves but be less strict with others.

When on the China mainland, I would hear people sometimes censuring priests for some undesirable action, I felt very uneasy. I did not wonder whether the priest should or should not have done such a thing, I only thought if I were in his position and situation I may have done the same. How can I censure him, or be qualified to ‘throw the first stone,’ and condemn him for wrongdoing?

Chinese culture is characterized by ‘starting from oneself.’ This perspective on life means to look inward to oneself and not demand from others what one does not demand of oneself!

Confucius once thought that ‘in the way of the superior man (the perfect gentleman) there are four things’ but he had not been able to attain any one of them. “To serve my father as I would require my son to serve me, to this I have not attained. To serve my prince as I would require my minister to serve me, to this I have not attained. To serve my elder brother as I would require my younger brother to serve me, this I have not attained; to set the example in behaving to a friend as I would require him to behave towards me, this I have not attained.” (Doctrine of the Mean”, #13) (2) Confucius was saying that if he demanded something of another person, he himself must first fulfill that demand; but he felt he had not been able to do this. That is to say, if he wanted his son to treat him well yet was unable to treat his father in the same way!

Are we not the same? Instead of ‘forgiving with consideration’ we sometimes act exactly opposite. We do not blame ourselves but censure others harshly. We neither have sympathy for others, nor excuse or forgive them.

In psychology, there is a role playing exercise called ‘exchanging roles.’ One puts oneself into a certain role and tries to imagine what a person in such a situation would feel. The activity is very helpful to us when we are trying to treat others with greater tolerance and empathy.

(1)忠恕之道:責己以忠、待人以恕。
(2)所求乎子,以事父,未能也;所求乎朋友,先施之,未能也。

 

 

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徐錦堯@fr.luketsui.idv.hk 2017