常年期第十六主日 2018年07月22日


常年期第十六主日

大和解

讀經一:(耶23:1-6):上主要集合各地的羊
讀經二:(弗2:13-18):基督摧毀了仇恨,造就了和平
福 音:(谷6:30-34):群眾從各地來聽耶穌講道
中國文化: 天地有曲全之仁,雨露無不被之澤。

基督是我們的和平,他使雙方合而為一;他以自己的身體,拆毀了中間阻隔的牆壁,就是雙方的仇恨;並且廢除了法律的規條,使雙方在他內成為一個新人,造就了和平。基督以十字架消除了仇恨,也用十字架使雙方合成一體,與天主和好。」
(弗2:14-16)

基督帶來的救恩其中一個重要效果,就是大和解:是人與天主間的大和解,是人與人之間在主內的彼此大和解。

在保祿的時代,猶太人與外邦人之間的分別,比我們現在任何兩個黨、任何兩個階級、或任何兩個民族之間的分別都要大。猶太人排斥外邦人,比許多今日的基要派或原教旨主義者對別人的排斥,還要起勁得多。

保祿在今日選經的再前兩節中,所描寫的外邦人,具有三重缺撼:

第一、在肉體上,他們沒有古老的立約記號,因為他們是「未受割損的人」,和默西亞沒有血統的關係;(參看弗2:11)

第二、在政治上,外邦人不屬於以色列社團,所以「對恩許的盟約是局外人」;(參看弗2:12)

第三、在屬靈生命上,他們由於沒有天主,所以「在這世界上沒有希望」(參看弗2:12)。

保祿宗徒被稱為「外邦人的宗徒」,對外邦人本來有特別的好感,但仍然對外邦人有這樣負面的看法,何況是當時的猶太人呢?

但無論人們如何評價外邦人,無論人與人之間的分別有多麼大,無論阻擋人間友愛的圍牆有多麼厚、多麼高,保祿都認為基督要「拆毀中間阻隔的牆壁」。

基督已為全人類降生成人,為全人類的得救而被釘在十字架上,並為了全人類的成義而戰勝死亡、復活升天。因此天主已經進入了所有的人中,進入所有的文化裡,並在所有的人間制度內,施行了聖化和救贖。

沒有人可以獨佔天主,沒有人可以築起圍牆,限制上主,阻擋上主的救恩普施濟眾、澤被蒼生。基督的教會尤其應和基督一起,協助搗毀這座高牆。

梵蒂岡第二次大公會議文獻中的《教會憲章》,認為「教會在基督內,好像一件聖事,就是說,教會是與天主親密結合,以及全人類彼此團結的記號和工具。」簡單來說,天主教的使命就是大和解,要致力促進人與神、人與人之間的和解, 達到彼此的共融和合一。
保祿看出來,這阻隔的牆壁其實就是雙方的仇恨。

個人或團體由於利益的衝突,慢慢便會變化為文化上的差異,再演變成政治上的對抗,再由宗教教義加以鞏固和合理化。人們有時甚至也會把神拉下來,作為人間仇恨和衝突的助拳人!

所以我們在各種慘絕人寰的戰爭中,還會加上一種叫「宗教戰爭」的怪異現象。很不幸的是,有些人卻會叫它做「聖戰」﹗

其實,宗教戰爭本身已經是一個天大的笑話??尤其這些戰爭如果是發生在天主教、基督教、猶太教的國家之間。因為他們大家都相信同樣的神,所以在戰爭中,他們就會呼求這同樣的真神,去消滅這個真神所愛、所救贖的其他子民!

保祿認為仇恨的消滅,是為了建立和平、使大家合成一體,而這一切必須建立在「與天主和好」之上。

天主其實是一個大慈大悲的天主。今天的福音記載:「耶穌一上岸,看見一大群人,見他們好像沒有牧人的羊群,便憐憫他們。」(谷6:34)

憐憫人是天主偉大的屬性,所謂「天地有曲全之仁,雨露無不被之澤」。若望更明言「天主就是愛」(若一4:8)。我們的天主,本來就是一個大慈大悲的神,一個愛我們無微不至的好父親。所以我們在天主經中,都這樣說:「我們的天父」。

我們的這位天主已經不是一個高高在上的神明,而是一位有情有心、「富於仁愛」的慈父。

如果我們真願意與天主和好,我們就一定要學習天主的愛和憐憫,培養一顆大慈大悲的心,去和所有人相處。那麼一切人間的阻隔,便一定會消弭於無形的了。

 

 

常年期第十六主日

大和解

读经一:(耶23:1-6):上主要集合各地的羊
读经二:(弗2:13-18):基督摧毁了仇恨,造就了和平
福 音:(谷6:30-34):群众从各地来听耶稣讲道
中国文化: 天地有曲全之仁,雨露无不被之泽。

基督是我们的和平,他使双方合而为一;他以自己的身体,拆毁了中间阻隔的墙壁,就是双方的仇恨;并且废除了法律的规条,使双方在他内成为一個新人,造就了和平。基督以十字架消除了仇恨,也用十字架使双方合成一体,与天主和好。」
(弗2:14-16)

基督带来的救恩其中一個重要效果,就是大和解:是人与天主间的大和解,是人与人之间在主内的彼此大和解。

在保禄的時代,犹太人与外邦人之间的分别,比我们现在任何两個党、任何两個阶级、或任何两個民族之间的分别都要大。犹太人排斥外邦人,比许多今日的基要派或原教旨主义者对别人的排斥,还要起勁得多。

保禄在今日选经的再前两节中,所描写的外邦人,具有三重缺撼:

第一、在肉体上,他们没有古老的立约记号,因为他们是「未受割损的人」,和默西亚没有血统的关系;(参看弗2:11)

第二、在政治上,外邦人不属於以色列社团,所以「对恩许的盟约是局外人」;(参看弗2:12)

第三、在属灵生命上,他们由於没有天主,所以「在这世界上没有希望」(参看弗2:12)。

保禄宗徒被称为「外邦人的宗徒」,对外邦人本来有特别的好感,但仍然对外邦人有这样负面的看法,何况是当時的犹太人呢?

但无论人们如何评价外邦人,无论人与人之间的分别有多么大,无论阻挡人间友爱的围墙有多么厚、多么高,保禄都认为基督要「拆毁中间阻隔的墙壁」。

基督已为全人类降生成人,为全人类的得救而被钉在十字架上,并为了全人类的成义而战胜死亡、复活升天。因此天主已经进入了所有的人中,进入所有的文化里,并在所有的人间制度内,施行了圣化和救赎。

没有人可以独占天主,没有人可以筑起围墙,限制上主,阻挡上主的救恩普施济众、泽被苍生。基督的教会尤其应和基督一起,协助捣毁这座高墙。

梵蒂冈第二次大公会议文献中的《教会宪章》 ,认为「教会在基督内,好像一件圣事,就是说,教会是与天主亲密结合,以及全人类彼此团结的记号和工具。」简单来说,天主教的使命就是大和解,要致力促进人与神、人与人之间的和解, 达到彼此的共融和合一。
保禄看出来,这阻隔的墙壁其实就是双方的仇恨。

個人或团体由於利益的冲突,慢慢便会变化为文化上的差异,再演变成政治上的对抗,再由宗教教义加以巩固和合理化。人们有時甚至也会把神拉下来,作为人间仇恨和冲突的助拳人!

所以我们在各种惨绝人寰的战争中,还会加上一种叫「宗教战争」的怪异现象。很不幸的是,有些人却会叫它做「圣战」!

其实,宗教战争本身已经是一個天大的笑话??尤其这些战争如果是发生在天主教、基督教、犹太教的国家之间。因为他们大家都相信同样的神,所以在战争中,他们就会呼求这同样的真神,去消灭这個真神所爱、所救赎的其他子民!

保禄认为仇恨的消灭,是为了建立和平、使大家合成一体,而这一切必须建立在「与天主和好」之上。

天主其实是一個大慈大悲的天主。今天的福音记载:「耶稣一上岸,看见一大群人,见他们好像没有牧人的羊群,便怜悯他们。」(谷6:34)

怜悯人是天主伟大的属性,所谓「天地有曲全之仁,雨露无不被之泽」。若望更明言「天主就是爱」(若一4:8)。我们的天主,本来就是一個大慈大悲的神,一個爱我们无微不至的好父亲。所以我们在天主经中,都这样说:「我们的天父」。

我们的这位天主已经不是一個高高在上的神明,而是一位有情有心、「富於仁爱」的慈父。

如果我们真願意与天主和好,我们就一定要学习天主的爱和怜悯,培养一颗大慈大悲的心,去和所有人相处。那么一切人间的阻隔,便一定会消弭於无形的了。

 

 

SIXTEENTH SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME

The Great Reconciliation

First Reading (Jer 23: 1-6): The Lord will gather the sheep from all lands
Second Reading (Eph 2: 13-18): Christ breaks down hostility and makes peace
Gospel (Mk 6: 30-34): Crowds from all over come to hear Jesus preach
Chinese Classics:
-“Heaven and earth can draw a straight line with a crooked ruler. Rain and dew can benefit all of creation.”(1)

He is our peace: in his flesh he has made both groups into one and has broken down the dividing wall, that is, the hostility between us. He has abolished the law with its commandments and ordinances, that he might create in himself one new humanity in place of the two, thus making peace, and might reconcile both groups to God in one body through the cross, thus putting to death that hostility through it. (Eph 2: 14-16)

One of the most important fruits of the salvation Christ brought is reconciliation: reconciliation between human beings and God, and in God reconciliation among all people with each other. During Paul's time, the difference between Jews and Gentiles was greater than that of any groups today, whether political parties, economic classes or ethnic groups. Discrimination one group for the other was greater even than that which exists today between Christian fundamentalists and members of the more traditional religions.

In the two verses before today's first reading, Paul pointed out three shortcomings of the Gentiles. First, they were ‘uncircumcised’ so their bodies did not bear the mark of the ancient Covenant, and thus they had no blood-relationship with the Messiah (cf Eph 2:11); secondly, politically they were not part of the tribes of Israel, so were ‘strangers’ or ‘outsiders’ to the ‘covenant of the promise.’ (cf. Eph 2:12). The third shortcoming was because they ‘had no hope and were without God in the world.’ (cf Eph 2:12). Paul is called ‘the Apostle to the Gentiles,’ and had special affection for them. Even so, he had such a negative view towards those who were not Jews. How much more, then, the Jews of his time.

But no matter how people judged the Gentiles, no matter how great the differences among peoples, no matter how thick and high the walls of division and obstacles to good will among people, Paul believed that Christ “has broken down the dividing wall.” Christ was God incarnate and became human for the benefit of all humankind, he was nailed to the cross and conquered death by his resurrection and ascension for all humankind. Therefore God already had entered into the life of all human beings, all cultures and social structures, effecting our salvation and sanctification.

No one can hem God in or build up walls that restrict God's movements, or prevent God from pouring out saving grace on all members of the human race. Moreover, the church of Christ, together with Christ himself, should help to break down any barriers that might attempt this.

The Vatican II Council document, “Constitution on the Church” says, “By her relationship with Christ the Church is a kind of sacrament or sign of intimate union with God, and of the unity of all humankind. She is also an instrument for the achievement of such union and unity.” (art 1) Simply stated, the Catholic Church's mission is reconciliation. It must use every means possible to promote reconciliation between God and human beings, and human beings with each other, until all are united in union with one another.

Paul's view was that the walls of hindrances came from hatred on both sides. Conflicting views about individual or communal advantages gradually developed into cultural differences and then opposing political positions. Religious doctrine added strength and rationality to these positions. Sometimes people even called upon God to come down and be their helper in overcoming those whom they hated and with whom they were in conflict! Therefore throughout the entire history of all human conflicts and wars, there can be added the strange phenomenon of ‘religious wars’. Unfortunately, some people even call them ‘Holy Wars!’

Actually, the very idea of ‘a religious war’ is a mockery – especially if it refers to a war among countries which are Catholic, Protestant and Jewish. Because they all believe in the same God, and during a war they all call upon the same God to destroy other people whom God loves and has saved!

Paul thought that to destroy hatred was in order to establish peace and enable all humankind to become one. And this must be founded on “reconciliation with God.

God is truly a God of compassion. Today's Gospel reminds us that “as Jesus went ashore, he saw a great crowd; and he had compassion for them. (Mk 6:34)

Being merciful to humankind is one of God's characteristics. This is what is meant by the Chinese saying “Heaven and earth can draw a straight line with a crooked ruler. Rain and dew can benefit all of creation.”(1) John in his first letter says that “God is love.” (1 Jn 4:8) From the start our God has been a compassionate and benevolent God, a loving Father who cares for every detail of our lives. That is why we say in the Lord's Prayer, “Our Father in heaven.” Our God is not a God far away from us. He is a merciful Father “full of loving kindness.

If we really want to be reconciled with God, we must learn about God's own love and compassion, nurture a heart full of sympathy and mercy, and live in peace with all other people. Then the barriers which separate us human beings one from the other will dissolve and disappear altogether.

 

(1)天地有曲全之仁,雨露無不被之澤。

 

 

現場講道(粵語)

教友證道


神父講道


現場講道文稿

主日八分半(彌撒講道)

粵語講道


普通話講道



 

徐錦堯@fr.luketsui.idv.hk 2017